The Polish Negative Pronouns “nikt” and “nic”: A Short Guide

The Polish negative indefinite pronouns nikt and nic are roughly equivalent to the English negative pronouns nobody (or no one) and nothing. As the name would suggest, the pronouns are used to negate things or declare their non-existence. Here are some sentences with nikt and nic in context: Nikt nie jest doskonały. (“Nobody is perfect.”) …

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The Polish Interrogative Pronouns “kto” and “co” and Related Pronouns

The Polish interrogative pronouns kto and co correspond to the English question words who and what, so their main purpose is asking questions about personal (human) and impersonal agents. Kto wygrał konkurs? (“Who won the contest?”) Co jeszcze widziałeś? (“What else did you see?”) On a basic level, Polish interrogative pronouns are very much like …

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The Beginner’s Guide to Polish Reflexive Pronouns and Verbs

The way reflexive pronouns work in Polish might not seem too intuitive to an English speaker. After all, English reflexive pronouns – words like oneself, himself, yourselves etc. – are only used in very specific contexts. On a basic level, reflexive pronouns are used to signal that the object of a clause is the same …

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The No-Nonsense Guide to Polish Possessive Pronouns

The purpose of possessive pronouns – like my, your, and their in English – is indicating possession or ownership.  It may be useful to think of possessive pronouns as a cross between adjectives and personal pronouns. First, they attach to other parts of speech in order to describe them, just like adjectives do – good …

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The Polish Demonstrative Pronouns “ten” and “tamten”: A Simple Guide

Demonstrative pronouns are used to point at things, usually in order to distinguish them from other things. In English, the basic demonstrative pronouns are this, that, those and these. In Polish, there are two types of pronouns. The so-called proximal demonstrative pronoun ten is used to point to things which are close to the speaker. On the …

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Everything You Need to Know about Polish Prepositions

Prepositions are functional words used to clarify the relationship between other words in the sentence. In English, these are mostly short words like about, on or with. In Polish, just as in English, it is often nearly impossible to express even a simple thought without the help of a couple of prepositions. That’s why you …

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How Clozemaster Is Using Cloze Testing And Spaced Repetition To Make Language Learning Faster And More Effective

When studying a second language, many students will eventually reach a certain stage where they start to wonder “What do I do next?” – and for most people there is no obvious answer. Beginner students usually follow a standard progression: learn the basic grammar of the language learn basic vocabulary such as pronouns, numbers, colors …

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How to Learn Spanish While Traveling in Central America

You’ve booked your ticket; your bags are packed and you simply cannot wait to board that plane and begin your journey to a Spanish-speaking country. You are excited to think about those beautiful words and romantic sounding phrases… and let’s not get started on all the mouthwatering sounds of the delicacies that you will come …

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