Yes and no. “Wyszedł” means the same as “opuścił”, but it requires a preposition for the sentence to be grammatical. So the alternative sentence would be:
Wyszedł z pokoju bez słowa.
“Opuścić” never needs a preposition, it just takes a noun in the accusative case. It can’t stand on its own—a sentence like “Adam opuścił.” is meaningless.
“Wyjść” always needs a preposition + a noun in the case that matches that preposition. “Z” (~ “from”) will be most common, but there are also some other options. Unlike “opuścić”, it can stand on its own.
Anna wyszła z domu. (“Anna left the house”)
Alex wyszedł do sklepu. (“Alex went to the store.”)
Julia wyszła. (“Julia left.”)
Some additional usage notes:
- “Opuścić” sounds a bit formal. Nobody says “Opuściłem kuchnię i poszedłem do łazienki.” (“I left the kitchen and went to the bathroom”).“Opuścił pokój bez słowa” works just fine here because the context seems rather serious/dramatic.
- “Wyjść” stems from “iść”, which is why it can only be used when the “leaving” is done on foot. So maybe it would make more sense for you to remember it as “walk out” rather than just “leave”.
- “Opuścić” doesn’t specify the mode of movement. You can often hear “Lewandowski opuścił boisko w 30. minucie” (“Lewandowski left the field in the 30th minute”), and in this case, it is quite likely that he left it on a stretcher.
P.S. Curiously enough, “wyjść za” means… “to marry someone”. But only if it’s about a woman marrying a man:
Anna wyszła za Marcina. (“Anna married Marcin.”)