There isn’t really anything to it, looks like a rather random sentence fragment. I don’t think this phrase is much more common in Polish than it is in English.
The way I’d make sense of it would be to imagine it’s a reply in a conversation, as in:
—Jakie jest twoje największe marzenie? (“What is your biggest dream?”)
—Mieszkać na końcu świata. (“To live at the end of the world.”)
Perhaps “at the edge of the world” would be more idiomatic in English? That would translate to “na krańcu świata” in Polish, which, come to think of it, might even sound more natural than “na końcu świata”.